National Museum of Hutsulshchyna and Pokuttya Folk Art named after Yosaphat Kobrynskyy

Clothing, textiles and embroidery

embroideryClothing, textiles and embroidery

Kolomyya Museum of Hutsulshchyna and Pokuttya Folk Art named after Y.Kobrynskyy owns a valuable collection of clothing, textiles and embroideries with more than six thousand works of main centers of Gutsulshchyna and Pokuttya of the end. of XIX - beg.of ХХcc...

The collection of textiles is presented by traditional fabrics designed for interior arrangement and decoration: verety (sackcloth), lizhnyky (homespun woollen blanket), pishvy (duvet covers), tablecloth, towels, carpets and carpet products. The bulk of the collection is baybaraky (item of the outer garments), mantles, gugles (outer garments made of white cloth), huni (sheep skin mantles); zapasky (woollen skirts), opynky (outer garments made of thick wollen cloth) (horbaty-skirts, foty-loose clothes), aprons, skirts; hats (female) - peremitky (female headdress), ochipky (headdress of a married woman), woven scarves, wedding chaplets; (male) - krysani, hats -rohachky, riveted; acsessories - belts, ribbons,taystry (shoulder bag), besahy (bags), dziobenky (Hutsul wollen or leather shoulder bag), jewelry - sylyanky (beads on the thread), bead gerdans (ornamental stitch made of beads), Venetian necklace, pearls, corals, necklace of coins - talers, tryasunky ("quaking grass") and others. A small part of the collection is made of household textiles such as besahy (bags or sacks), lizhnyky (homespun woollen blanket) - prysidky (seats for saddling horses).

Weaving was one of the most common types of home crafts in Hutsulshchyna and Pokuttya as well as throughout Western Ukraine. The development of sheep-breeding and the need in warm things contributed to it. Lizhnyk (coverlets woven of coarse slightly twisted woolen yarn) was indispensible part of Hutsuls' everyday life. Besides their primary domestic function (they were used to make beds, instead of pillows; Hutsuls laid wagons in summer and sleighs in winter by them), they were also used in decorative and ceremonial purposes. Best lizhnyks were woven by Hanna and Vasylyna Shkriblyaks, Nastunya and Paraska Korpanyuk and Vasylna Kalynych. Highly artistic samples of patterned weaving are presented on Hutsul and Pokuttya verets (sackcloth), tablecloths, pishvas(duvet covers), towels attracting by original compositions and color range. Large variety of Hutsul carpets is distinguished among decorated fabrics. Large rhombs with stepped or serrated contour are the key elements of carpets compositions. The leading center of carpet weaving in the beginning of XX century was the town of Kosiv. In the second half of the XX century Kolomyya factory of artistic goods "Carpathian patterns" (chief designer Ivan Gulyk) played a significant role in creating modern folk carpet. Outstanding masters of weaving in Kosiv in mid. XX century were J. Dzhuranyuk, M.Hanushchak, R. Gorbovyy and O. Gorbova. They created both traditional and new types of interior fabrics, modern apparel fabrics. The collection of works of folk artist of Ukraine Mykhailo Bilas is of much value in the museum's collection. Deep understanding of traditional folk heritage was brilliantly reflected in the colorful compositions of the artist. Hanna Vintonyak, well known artist, took the advantage of rich traditions of Hutsul and Pokuttya folk art in her works. The best traits of folk clothes are embodied in her exquisite compositions of woven women's clothing, coats and dresses.

Male and female outfit of Hutsuls is bright and distinctive. It retains old archaic features. Highlanders made clothes of local materials, mostly from wool. Folk masters skillfully combined practicality and beauty in clothing using different kinds of artistic decorations,that is embroidery, weaving, braiding and leather working. Festive costumes were completed with necklaces and woven bags - dziobenkas. Hats pointed primarily at the social status of women in the village. To early XX century married women of Hutsulshchyna and Pokuttya wore peremitkas. It is one of the most archaic kinds of women head wear in Ukraine. Men wore rough felt hat kresanya and sheep-skin hat "rohachka" in winter.

Embroidery was one of the most favorite types of clothing decoration, interior and ceremonial textiles . Women's and men's shirts, keptari, kozhuhs(shrouds), serdaky, cloaks , men's pants "krashenytsi" and broadcloth-puttee slippers were usually embroidered. The motifs of rhombus, square, triangle, circle, cross, merlon, locks and sigma were prevailing in the traditional geometric ornament of Pokuttya and Hutsul embroideries. Geometric anthropomorphic, zoomorphic and floral motifs were preserved in the ornamentation. At the end of XIX - beg. of XX cc. Hutsul and Pokuttya women embroidered with hand spun woolen and linen thread, as well as with threads of industrial production. Each Hutsul and Pokuttya village had its peculiar traditional motif, composition and colors.

Talented masters of artistic embroidery of the end of XIX - XX centuries are K. Korpanyuk,H. Hereasymovych, M. Sabadash and E. Henyk. They are the authors of interior, ritual and cloths textiles, such as towels, carpets, pishvas, napkins, women's blouses made with high artistic taste.

The best traditions of ancient folk art are preserved in Hutsul and Pokuttya weaving, embroidery and clothing . They are a constant source of ideas for contemporary masters and artists.

Irina Fediv,
Deputy Director of Research

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